ICE Case Studies
Number 176, May 2006
Doo-hwan (born 18 January 1931) was a Korean military
officer and the President of South Korea from 1980 to
1988. Sentenced to death in 1996, Chun was later
pardoned by President Kim Dae-jung, whom he himself had
sentenced to death some 20 years earlier. Chun was a
graduate of the eleventh class of the Korean Military
Academy in 1955. As head of the Army Security Command,
he was in charge of the investigation into the
assassination of President Park Chung-hee. On 12
December 1979, in what became known as the Coup d'état
of December Twelfth, Chun ordered the arrest of Army
Chief of Staff General Chung Sung Hwa without
authorization from then-President Choi Kyu-ha, alleging
involvement in the assassination. This led to a bloody
shoot-out at the Army Headquarters and the Ministry of
Defense. By the next morning, Chun and his fellow
eleventh class military academy graduates Roh Tae-woo
and Jeong Ho-yong were in charge of the Korean military.
In progress (1986~present). Although South Korea finished to construct huge dam enough to endure imaginable water attack from North Korea in 2005, we can say that conflict still lasts between two Korean dams at DMZ (demilitarized zone) area due to possibility of water scarce at South Korean side.
lies adjacent to China and Japan. The northern border of Korea is
formed by the Amnokgang (Yalu) and Dumangang (Tumen) rivers, which
separate it from Manchuria. A 16-kilometer segment of the Dumangang
to the east also serves as a natural border with Russia. The west
coast of the Korean Peninsula is bounded by the Korean Bay to the
north and the West Sea to the south; the east coast faces the East
Bilateral between South and North Korea. Ordinarily, all kind of matters with regard to security issues on the Korean Peninsula can not be isolated with surrounding powers' national interests and used to call their intervention toward peninsula, but this case has been exceptional and dealt with bilaterally between two Koreas.
By construction of a huge dam by North Korea, South Korean government worried about 2 cases. First, the construction of this huge dam for several years would obstruct the source of water for the Han River which flows through various cities and major agricultural fields in South Korea, and as a consequence, destroy the South Korean ecosystem. Second, and more significantly, the destruction of the Geumgang Mountain Dam (intentionally or not) would cause serious damage to South Korea and potentially flood Seoul, its capital city.
From above two cases, either flood or water loss, we can define this
type of environmental problem as HABITAT.
Water Flow on the Han River from
North to South
climate of Korea is characterized by four distinct seasons: spring,
summer, autumn and winter. The contrast between winter and summer is
striking. Winter is bitterly cold and is influenced primarily by
cold Siberian fronts. Summer is hot and humid due to the maritime
pacific high. The transitional seasons, spring and autumn are sunny
and generally dry. Temperatures in all seasons are somewhat lower
than those at the corresponding latitudes in other continents, such
as North America or Western Europe. The temperatures in Seoul, which
is in the latitude of Richmond, Va., are closer to those in New York
which is located 500 kilometers (300 miles) farther north from the
latitude of Seoul. The variation of annual mean temperature ranges
except for the mountainous areas. August is the hottest month with
the mean temperature ranging from 19oC
January is the coldest month with the mean temperature ranging from
Annual precipitation is about 1,300mm in the central region. More
than a half of the total rainfall is concentrated in summer, while
precipitation in winter is less than 10 percent of the annual total.
The prevailing winds are southeasterly to southwesterly
in summer, and northwesterly in winter. The winds are stronger in
winter, from December to February, than those in other seasons. The
land-sea breeze becomes dominant with weakened monsoon winds in the
transitional months, September and October.
|As of 2000, Seoul has 9,895,217 civilians (Korea Government, 2000).|
Basically, this kind of threat as well as conflict between two Koreas is direct one because this conflict consists of bilateral act and reaction. By times goes on from 1986 to present, bigger dam which is the Peace Dam South Korea constructs, lesser strategic utility North Korea has. To sum up, total level of threat has been diminished as South Korean Peace Dam became larger and bigger. Based on the above graph which predicted total water shortage in Seoul area by South Korean Government, we can measure that total threat level by North Korean dam has been diminished gradually.
But the level of threat is not zero as ever because lower side of the Han River, Seoul area, has been more less water resources about 1.7 billion ton per year due to construction of the Geumgangsan Dam by North Korea, so that possibilities of conflict between two Koreas is still in exist.
There are two solutions about this as S. Korea; First, South Korea decided to reserve 0.1 billion water resource in the Peace Dam all the time in case of severe drought. Second, South Korean Government persuades North Korea to discharge water resource from the Geumgangsan Dam periodically.
After complete construction of the Peace Dam in 2005, the outcome of dispute remains as stalemate, because the war is not over yet although the strategic usefulness which North Korea has been set off very much.
1. Korea Broadcasting Corporation, 2006. "Millionth Visitor to Mt. Geumgang" KBS Global News. 08 March. Internet. Available from http://english.kbs.co.kr/news/zoom/1354003_11781.html; accessed 08 March 2006.
2. East West Service. 2005. "S. Korea completes
'Peace Dam' to block flood attack from North". World Tribune. 27
3. Wikipedia. 2006. Chun Doo-hwan. Wikipedia 'The Free Encyclopedia'. 06 March. Internet. Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chun_Doo-hwan ; accessed 08 March 2006.
4. Hoh Kui-seek. 2005. Dedication of Peace Dam comes after 19-year hiatus. The JoongAng Daily. 27 October. Internet. Available from http://joongangdaily.joins.com/200510/18/200510182140303239900090409041.html ; accessed 08 March 2006.
5. Korea.Net. 2006. General Information on Korea. The Korean Overseas Information Service (KOIS). Internet. Available from http://www.korea.net/korea/kor_loca.asp?code=A0101 ; accessed 08 March 2006.
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7. Central Intelligence Agency. 2005. The World Fact Book. CIA. Internet. Available from http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ ; accessed 08 March 2006.